This recent post highlighted certain facts and figures regarding the DOJ’s prosecution of individuals for FCPA offenses in 2015 and historically.
As highlighted in the prior post, DOJ FCPA individual enforcement actions are significantly skewed by a small handful of enforcement actions and the reality is, despite the DOJ’s rhetoric, that 72% of DOJ corporate enforcement actions since 2008 have not (at least yet) resulted in any DOJ charges against company employees.
Another very interesting and significant picture emerges when analyzing DOJ individual FCPA prosecutions based on whether the individual charged was employed by or otherwise associated with a publicly traded corporation or a private business organization.
Of the 107 individuals charged by the DOJ with FCPA criminal offenses since 2008, 82 of the individuals (77%) were employees or otherwise affiliated with private business organizations. This is a striking statistic given that 53 of the 69 corporate DOJ FCPA enforcement actions since 2008 (79%) were against publicly traded corporations.
In the 16 private business organization DOJ FCPA enforcement actions since 2008, individuals were charged in connection with 9 of those actions (56%). In contrast, in the 53 publicly traded corporation DOJ FCPA enforcement actions since 2008, individuals were charged in connection with 10 of those cases (19%). Indeed, since 2012 there have been only three instances of an individual associated with a publicly traded company being criminally charged with FCPA violations (Garth Peterson, Alain Riedo and Vicente Garcia).
In short, a DOJ FCPA enforcement against a private business organization is approximately three times more likely to have a related DOJ FCPA criminal prosecution of an individual than a DOJ FCPA enforcement action against a publicly traded corporation.
The below information highlights all individuals criminally charged with FCPA violations since 2008 and whether they were associated with a publicly traded company or private business organization.
Individuals Charged With FCPA Criminal Offenses Since 2008 (Employer / Affiliation)
Bold = employed or affiliated with a private business entity
Gerald Green, Patricia Green (owners / operators of several private companies)
Martin Eric Self (employees of Pacific Consolidated Industries LP – a private business entity)
Shu Quan Sheng (owner of AMAC International Inc., but acting on behalf of French Company A – a publicly traded corporation)
Misao Hioki (employee of Bridgestone Corporation – a publicly traded corporation)
Nam Nguyen, Joseph Lukas, Kim Nguyen, An Nguyen (employees / agents of Nexus Technologies – a private business entity)
James Tillery and Paul Novak (employee / agent of Willbros Group)
Albert Jack Stanley, Jeffrey Tesler, Wojciech Chodan (employees / agents of KBR Inc., – a publicly traded corporation and/or other publicly traded corporations)
Richard Morlock, Stuart Carson, Hong Carson, Paul Cosgrove, David Edmonds, Flavio Ricotti, Han Yong Kim, Mario Covino (employees of Control Components Inc. – a private business entity)
Ousama Naaman (agent of Innospec – a publicly traded corporation)
John Jospeh O’Shea, Fernando Maya Basurto (employee / agent of ABB Ltd. – a publicly traded corporation)
Charles Paul Edward Jumet, John Warwick (employees of Ports Engineering Consultants Corporation – a private business entity)
Jorge Granados, Manuel Caceres, Juan Pablo Vasquez, Manuel Salvoch (employees of Latin Node Inc. – a private business entity)
Juan Diaz, Antonio Perez, Joel Esquenazi, Carlos Rodriguez, Marguerite Grandison, Jean Fourcand, Washington Vasconez Cruz, Amadeus Richers, Cecilia Zurita (employees / agents of Terra Telecommunications Corp., Telecom Consulting Services Corp., JD Locator Services, Inc. or Cinergy Telecommunications – all private business entities)
Enrique Faustino Aguilar, Angela Maria Gomez Aguilar, Keith Lindsey, Steve Lee (employees / agents of Lindsey Manufacturing Corp. – a private business entity)
Richard Bistrong (employee of Armor Holdings Inc. – a publicly traded corporation)
Jonathan Spiller John Mushriqui, Jeanna Mushriqui, David Painter, Lee Wares, Pankesh Patel, Ofer Paz, Israel Weisler, Michael Sacks, John Benson Wier, Haim Geri, Yochanan Choan, Saul Mishkin, R. Patrick Caldwell, Stephen Giordanella, Andrew Bigelow, Helmie Ashiblie, Daniel Alvirez, Lee Allen Tolleson, John Gregory Godsey (all employees of private business entities), Mark Morales (employee of Allied Defense Group – a publicly traded corporation), Amaro Goncalves (employee of Smith & Wesson – a publicly traded corporation)
Bobby Elkin (employee of Alliance One International – a publicly traded corporation)
Uriel Sharef, Herbert Steffen, Andres Truppel, Ulrich Bock, Stephan Signer, Eberhard Reichert, Carlos Sergi and Miguel Czysch (employees / agents of Siemens – a publicly traded corporation)
Garth Peterson (employee of Morgan Stanley, a publicly traded corporation
Peter DuBois, Neah Uhl, Bernd Kowalewski, Jald Jenson (associated with BizJet Int’l – a private business entity)
William Pomponi, Lawrence Hoskins, David Rotschild, Frederic Pierucci (associated with Alstom Power – a private business entity [note the individuals were charged under the dd-2 prong of the FCPA even though Alstom (the parent company) was a publicly traded company]
Joseph Sigelman, Knut Hammarskjold, Gregory Weisman (associated with Petro Tiger Ltd – a private business entity)
Dmitry Firtash, Andras Knopp, Suren Gevorgyan, Gajendra Lal, Periyasamy Sunderalingam (associated with DF Group – a private business entity)
Benito Chinea, Joseph DeMeneses, Tomas Clark, Alejandro Hurtardo, Ernesto Lujana (associated with Direct Access Partners – a private business entity)
Alain Riedo (associated with Maxwell Technologies – a publicly traded corporation)
Dmitrij Harder (associated with Chestnut Consulting Group – a private business entity)
James Rama (associated with IAP Worldwide – a private business entity)
Richard Hirsch, James McClung (associated with Louis Berger Int’l – a private business entity)
Vicente Garcia (associated with SAP – a publicly traded corporation)
Daren Condrey (associated with Transport Logistics International – a private business entity)
Roberto Rincon, Abraham Shiera (associated with private business entities)