Archive for the ‘Debarment’ Category

SNC-Lavalin Should Be Grateful And Not Pout

Tuesday, February 24th, 2015

Child CryingBut Mom / Dad, when Johnny gets into trouble his parents do things a little bit differently, why can’t I benefit from that?

As I told The Globe and Mail in this article, that is my reaction to SNC-Lavalin’s unusual statement upon being criminally charged by Canadian authorities for alleged improper payments to Libyan officials.

As noted in this previous post, last week the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) announced charges against the SNC-Lavalin Group Inc., its division SNC-Lavalin Construction Inc. and its subsidiary SNC-Lavalin International Inc.

Upon being charged, SNC-Lavalin issued this release, which as relevant here, stated:

“It is important to note that companies in other jurisdictions, such as the United States and United Kingdom, benefit from a different approach that has been effectively used in the public interest to resolve similar matters while balancing accountability and securing the employment, economic and other benefits of businesses.”

SNC-Lavalin should be grateful about various aspects of Canada’s legal system (compared to the U.S.) and not pout.

For starters SNC-Lavalin can only be found guilty of the charges alleged to the extent one of its “senior officials” engaged in improper conduct.  This is a much more exacting standard than the very lenient U.S. standard of respondeat superior corporate criminal liability in which a business organization can face criminal liability to the extent any employee engaged in improper conduct within the scope of employment and intended, at least in part, to benefit the organization.

Perhaps most importantly, SNC-Lavalin should be grateful, and not pout, that Canadian authorities will have to prove the facts and legal theories alleged in the enforcement action.  In the U.S., FCPA enforcement agencies are rarely put in the position of having to prove anything in a corporate FCPA enforcement action.  Rather, the DOJ (or SEC) occupy the position of prosecutor, judge and jury all at the same time and use resolution vehicles such as non-prosecution and deferred prosecution agreements (NPAs / DPAs) or administrative settlements – all of which are not subjected to any meaningful judicial scrutiny.

In short, SNC-Lavalin should be grateful, and not pout, that Canadian law enforcement authorities have not abandoned (as U.S. authorities have) traditional legal principles in the name of ease and efficiency. Accusing a person – whether a natural person or a legal person such as SNC-Lavalin – was never meant to be easy or efficient and it is interesting that SNC-Lavalin appears to be begging for such a system.

In other portions of its recent statement, SNC-Lavalin stated that the criminal charges “are without merit.” In other words, SNC-Lavalin seems to be saying that even though the criminal charges “are without merit,” it would have gladly forked over tens of millions – or perhaps hundreds of millions of dollars – of shareholder money to make the RCMP go away.  How would that benefit SNC-Lavalin’s employees and shareholders?

It is also worth nothing that SNC-Lavalin’s statement casts several opinion statements as fact.

For instance, many would disagree that companies subject to the FCPA “benefit” from the common enforcement approach in which the DOJ (or SEC) are not put in a position to prove anything in relation to the facts and legal theories alleged.  Many would also disagree that companies subject to the FCPA “benefit” from the excessive leverage the DOJ (or SEC) have over companies in extracting corporate settlement.  Moreover, many would disagree that the U.S. approach to resolving corporate FCPA enforcement actions through NPAs and DPAs or administrative SEC actions have “been effectively used in the public interest.”

In short, SNC-Lavalin should be grateful, and not pout, that it is subject to a legal system in which law enforcement has to prove facts and legal theories to someone other than itself.

And let’s face it, the problem with SNC-Lavalin’s predicament has little to do with Canada’s legal regime for prosecuting companies, but rather Canada’s recent – and foolish – automatic debarment rules (see here and here).

Assignment: Read Former Deputy Attorney General Larry Thompson’s New Article

Thursday, March 27th, 2014

Larry Thompson has experience with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act from a number of vantage points few can claim:  DOJ Deputy Attorney General, a lawyer in private practice, and a general counsel of a major multinational company.

For this reason, you should read Thompson’s new article -”In-Sourcing Corporate Responsibility for Enforcement of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act,” 51 American Criminal Law Review 199 (Winter 2014).

In the article, you will find an informed and candid critique of many current aspects of FCPA enforcement.

Thompson laments the uncertainty of the FCPA and states:

“The uncertainty of precisely what the FCPA forbids and allows harbors frightening potential for prosecutorial abuse and over-criminalization – topics that have preoccupied me, both as a private attorney and as Deputy Attorney General of the United States, for many years.  This uncertainty in the FCPA is particularly troubling when one is dealing not just with individuals, who have control over all their own actions, but also with large corporations – artificial ‘persons’ consisting of hundreds, or thousands, or even hundreds of thousands, of individuals for whom the corporation can be held accountable.”

Referencing FCPA congressional hearings in 2010 and 2011, Thompson observes:

“DOJ was unperturbed by the uncertainty surrounding FCPA enforcement.  Indeed, one could be forgiven for suspecting that at least some federal prosecutors favor that uncertainty.  But we must never forget that uncertainty in the law is the antitheses of the rule of law.  There is reason that the Latin word for ‘uncertainty’ is arbitrarius.  That some FCPA enforcement attorneys might relish and exploit the arbitrary enforcement of a federal criminal statute is not merely unseemly – it is illegitimate.”

In short, you can add Thompson’s observation to my own (see here) in countering commentator suggestions that the FCPA is anything other than clear.

On the topic of the 2012 FCPA Guidance, Thompson cites my article “Grading the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Guidance” and states:

“Its 130 pages appear impressive at first glance, but about two-thirds of that is routine recitation of background information:  the introduction and table of contents consume thirty-five pages, the reprinting of the statute itself accounts for another thirty pages, and a summary of previously issued (and by definition inadequate) guidance and discussion of other statutes fleshes out yet another twenty pages.”

On the general topic of guidance and commenting on NPAs and DPAs used to resolve FCPA enforcement actions, Thompson cites my Congressional testimony and observes:

 ”The FCPA guidance … offered by the Justice Department [in NPAs and DPAs] is less helpful because it may include coerced settlements that record instances where even DOJ itself was not sure that a violation of the FCPA actually occurred.”

Thompson’s observation in this regard is similar to former Attorney General Alberto Gonzales’s observation as highlighted in this previous post.

The majority of Thompson’s article renews calls for an FCPA compliance defense.

I first highlighted Thompson’s call (along with several other former higher ranking DOJ officials) for a compliance defense in my article ”Revisiting a Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Compliance Defense” and in this previous post I further highlighted Thompson’s call for compliance defense at an FCPA symposium.

In short, a hard-to-ignore reality of the current compliance defense debate – against the backdrop of DOJ’s strong institutional opposition to compliance defense concepts – is the chorus of former DOJ officials who support compliance defense concepts.

In his new article, Thompson writes:

“[W]e must create an incentive structure that drives corporations to establish internal compliance programs and to root out foreign corruption within their own organizations.  Only those businesses themselves have the resources to conduct the global investigations that the FCPA requires.  To accomplish this end, I believe that we need to do two things:  first, we must give businesses clear and predictable guidance on what sort of compliance programs they must establish; second, we must give them powerful incentives to engage in self-investigation and self-reporting of the bribery they uncover or suspect.  The incentives I suggest are two:  (1) businesses must be assured that a strong compliance program and prompt and full self-disclosure will ensure that the company itself will not be subject to criminal prosecution under the FCPA; and (2) such self-disclosure will also prevent the company from being debarred from doing business with the federal government or being denied government permits or licenses necessary for the company’s operations.”

Adopting a similar “baby carrot” / “real carrot” analogy I used in “Revisiting an FCPA Compliance Defense“, Thompson writes:

“I propose two carrots.  First, if a corporation establishes a comprehensive, fully funded, adequately staffed and trained FCPA compliance program, then the rogue employee who circumvents it and violates the FCPA – and is caught and turned over to authorities by his employer – should be deemed to be acting outside the realm of his corporate responsibilities and the self-reporting corporation should not be held criminally liable for his conduct.  This would be an instance of a blameless corporation. For this incentive to work, of course, the carrot must be large and appetizing – hence the absolute necessity for transparency and predictability in FCPA enforcement.  The second carrot is that a genuinely cooperative, self-reporting company with a proper compliance program must be assured that it will not be debarred from contracting with the United States government or receiving the government permits required to run its operations.”

In my “Revisiting an FCPA Compliance Defense” article and elsewhere (see prior posts here, here and here) I have articulated – like Thompson – reasons why the DOJ should be in support of – not opposed to – a compliance defense.  A compliance defense is not a race to the bottom – as government officials have suggested – it is a race to the top.  Like Thompson, I have argued that a compliance defense will better facilitate DOJ’s prosecution of culpable individuals and advance the objectives of the FCPA.

I agree with Thompson when he says that the DOJ and SEC have an “almost wooden attitude” when it comes to the FCPA. Reflecting on the enforcement agencies sense of confidence and the billions of dollars collected in enforcement actions, Thompson states:

“But this supposedly shining vision of FCPA enforcement prowess is a Potemkin village, because without corporations’ own internal policing and self-reporting, the FCPA can accomplish little.”

I sincerely hope that Thompson’s article can renew a substantive – not rhetorical – discussion of a compliance defense and how it can help advance the laudable purpose of the FCPA.  To learn more about my proposal, and how it differs slightly from Thompson’s, see here.

Can the DOJ and SEC soften its “wooden attitude”?  Is the DOJ and SEC capable of diverting attention from enforcement statistics, settlement amounts, and political statements filled with empty rhetoric?

As I wrote in my most recent post about a compliance defense, the FCPA has witnessed courageous moments before and a courageous moment is once again presented..

Foreign Military Sales Lead To FCPA Enforcement Action

Thursday, October 3rd, 2013

[This post is part of a periodic series regarding "old" FCPA enforcement actions]

In 1989, the DOJ criminally charged Minnesota based military equipment and supplies company Venturian Corporation, along with its wholly-owned subsidiary NAPCO International, with conspiracy to violate the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, substantive FCPA offenses (anti-bribery, books and records and internal controls), as well as various tax fraud offenses.

The conduct at issue was in connection with the Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program in which the U.S. government made loans to certain foreign governments to finance the purchase of defense items of U.S. origin.  The Defense Security Assistance Agency (DSAA), an agency of the U.S. Department of Defense, was responsible for directing, administering, and supervising FMS loans.  In connection with the FMS program, contractors and commercial suppliers were required to certify, among other things, that: (i) ”commissions would be paid only to bona fide employees or agencies which neither exerted or proposed to exert improper influences to solicit or obtain the contact;” and (ii) “no rebates, gifts or gratutities contrary to U.S. law have been or would be given to officers, officials or employees of the purchaser …”.

The conduct at issue concerned the Republic of Niger, a foreign nation qualified to receive FMS loan assistance from the DSAA, specifically Tahirou Barke Doka (the First Counselor of the Embassy of Niger in Washington, D.C.) and Captain Ali Tiemogo (Chief of Maintenance for the air force component of the Niger Ministry of Defense).

According to the detailed 50-page information, Niger entered into a contract with Dornier GmbH (a West German aircraft maintenance company) to perform maintenance on Nigerien C-130′s.  However, according to the indictment, “the Government of Niger had insufficient funds to pay for Dornier’s services and Dornier sought to affiliate with a U.S. contractor so that the Government of Niger could qualify” for the FMS program.

Thereafter, NAPCO, acting in cooperation with Dornier, began negotiations with the Government of Niger for a contract to furnish replacement parts and to perform maintenance on two C-130 transport aircraft owned by the airforce of the Government of Niger.  Four contracts, in the approximate amount of $2.4 million, were entered into between NAPCO and the Government of Niger.

The information alleges that NAPCO conspired with others to violate the FCPA by making payments or authorizing payments of money to “officials of the Government of Niger, that is, Counselor Tahirou Barke Doka and Captain Ali Tiemogo” and “Fatouma Mailelel Boube and Amadou Mailele, both relatives of Tiemogo, while knowing that all or a portion of such money would be offered, given or promised, directly or indirectly, to foreign officials, namely Barke and Tiemogo” for the purpose of “influencing the acts and decisions of Barke and Tiemogo in their official capacities, and inducing them to use their influence with the Ministry of Defense.”

The information further alleged that NAPCO ”falsely represent[ed] to DSAA the identifies of NAPCO’s agents, misrepresenting the percentages of contract funds paid and to be paid to non-U.S. suppliers and filing misdated invoices.”

According to the information, the aggregate amount of bribes paid to Barke and Tiemogo was approximately $131,000.  In addition, the information alleges that Barke ”traveled from Washington, D.C. to Niger for his wedding and subsequent honeymoon in Paris, Stockholm and London, using tickets charged to a NAPCO account.”

The information further alleges that NAPCO and others used various methods to conceal the conspiracy such as “preparing and using bogus commission agreements,” “creating a fictitious commission agent,” using the names of Mailele and Boube ”in order to conceal the payment of bribes,” “falsely representing to DSAA that Mailele and Boube were NAPCO’s agents “when these persons were not its agents, had performed no services for NAPCO, and had acted solely as the intermediaries for Tiemogo and Barke for the purpose of concealing the bribe payments.

In addition to the conspiracy charge and a substantive FCPA charges, the information also alleges that NAPCO filed false and fraudulent U.S. tax returns which “falsely claimed certain deductions for the payment of agent commissions.”

NAPCO pleaded guilty to the above charges (see here for the plea agreement).  As noted in the plea agreement, the DOJ and the company settled on a fine amount in the “aggregate amount of $1 million in satisfaction of its criminal and civil fines, penalties, taxes and restitution.”  The amount consisted of the following:  $785,000 for the criminal charges set forth in the information, $140,000 in restitution “for full payment of its civil tax liability to the DSSA for appropriate crediting to the FMS account of Niger,” and $75,000 restitution to the IRS for full payment of all criminal and civil tax liabilities.

The plea agreement notes that the DOJ will not prosecute NAPCO for “Napco’s contracts with Egypt,” “alleged United States Customs violations arising from the sale of misidentified radios to the Government of Egypt and to other countries;” or “FCPA violations arising from the transactions evidenced in the documents Napco produced to the Yellow Grand Jury.”

The plea agreement further states:

“The Department of Justice will advise the Department of Defense, Defense Logistics Agency, which is the suspension and debarment authority in this matter, of the facts learned during the government’s investigation of Napco; Napco’ s cooperation during the investigation; and the importance of this prosecution in the government’s efforts towards eradicating fraud in the Foreign Military Sales program.”

The above settlement terms are set forth in this judgment.

According to original source media reports, the DSSA ”uncovered the fraud when it checked the name of one of the agents with the government of Niger.”  Media reports quoted Theodore Greenberg (Deputy Chief DOJ Fraud Section) as follows:  “[money from the FMS program] is to be used for the military preparedness of certain governments; that, of course, is important to our national security.”  Media reports quoted Peter Clark (DOJ FCPA Unit) as follows:  “the object of the program is to be getting the biggest bank for the buck – not to pay illegal bribes.”

(See here for NAPCO’s current company website).

(The FMS program is still an active program of the Defense Department – see here).

In addition to the enforcement action against NAPCO / Venturian, the DOJ also brought an injunctive action against Dornier.  Of note, the DOJ described Dornier (a German company) as an “agent of NAPCO” and thus a “domestic concern” under the FCPA.  As to relevant jurisdiction allegations, the DOJ alleged that a Dornier employee Axel Kurth, had telephone conversations with NAPCO employees in Minnesota and that Kurth traveled in the U.S. “where he met with officers of NAPCO” to discuss the alleged improper payments.  Without admitting or denying the DOJ’s allegations, Dornier consented to a permanent injunction prohibiting future FCPA violations.

In addition, the DOJ criminally charged the Vice President of the Aerospace Division of NAPCO.  That individual exercised his constitutional right to a jury trial, put the DOJ to its burden of proof, and the results and ultimate outcomes will be explored in a future post.

Friday Roundup

Friday, October 12th, 2012

Beverage industry news, a long-running FCPA-related civil case settles, checking in on the World Bank, survey says, and on-point.  It’s all here in the Friday roundup.

Beverage Industry News

Disclosure by Central European Distribution Corp.

As noted in this Wall Street Journal Corruption Currents post, Central European Distribution Corp. (here - one of the world’s largest vodka producers) recently made an FCPA disclosure.  In this filing, the company (a Delaware company headquartered in New Jersey) stated as follows.

“It has [...] been determined that there has been a breach of the books and records provisions of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) of the United States and potentially other breaches of the FCPA. It was determined that payments or gifts were made in a foreign jurisdiction in which the Company operates, and that there was a failure to maintain documentation in respect of certain of these payments or gifts adequate to establish whether there was a valid business purpose in making the payments or gifts. Furthermore, our management also identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting regarding the implementation of our policy on compliance with applicable laws as of December 31, 2011. Our conclusion that this deficiency is a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting is not based on misstatements in our historical consolidated financial statements or our consolidated financial statements as of and for the period ended December 31, 2011, but instead on the determination that we did not design or maintain sufficient policies, procedures, controls, communications or training to deter or prevent the risk of violations of law, including the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”) of the United States.”

Beam Inc. Investigating Possible FCPA Violations

In other beverage industry news, the Times of India reports (here) that Beam Inc.  (here) “has initiated investigations into whistleblower allegations of financial misdemeanours at its India unit.”  According to the report, the investigation covers possible violations of Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.

As noted in this previous post, in July 2011 the SEC brought an FCPA enforcement action against beverage company Diageo PLC.

Alba-Alcoa Civil Case Settles

Earlier this week, Alcoa announced (here) that it “entered into a settlement agreement with Aluminium Bahrain B.S.C. (“Alba”) resolving a civil lawsuit that had been pending … since 2008.  Without admitting any liability, Alcoa agreed to make a cash payment to Alba of $85 million payable in two installments.”

Alba was represented by Akin Gump which put out this release.   The release notes that “the settlement arises out of a claim brought by Alba under the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) Act against Alcoa, an Alcoa subsidiary and Canadian businessman Victor Dahdaleh alleging a “pattern of corrupt activities by the defendants and officials in Bahrain in order to obtain long-term contract and pricing advantages in the sale of raw materials.”  As noted in the release,  ‘the case was stayed for nearly four years while the U.S. Department of Justice pursued a criminal investigation under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act” and the settlement “represents the first time that a foreign-owned corporation has successfully sued a U.S. company in a federal court to recover losses suffered due to allegations of corrupt activity. “

As highlighted in this previous post, Alcoa’s agent (Dahdaleh) has been criminally charged in the U.K.

The DOJ and SEC’s investigation of Alcoa concerning the conduct at issue in the civil lawsuit is ongoing.

In its most recent quarterly filing, Alcoa stated as follows.

The DOJ’s and the SEC’s investigations are ongoing. Alcoa has been in dialogue with both the DOJ and the SEC and is exploring whether a settlement can be reached. Given the uncertainty regarding whether a settlement can be reached and what the terms of any such settlement would be, Alcoa is unable to estimate a range of reasonably possible loss with regard to any such settlement, However, Alcoa expects the amount of any such settlement would be material in a particular period to Alcoa’s results of operations. If a settlement cannot be reached, Alcoa will proceed to trial with the DOJ and the SEC and under those circumstances is unable to predict an outcome or to estimate a range of reasonably possible loss. There can be no assurance that the final outcome of the government’s investigations would not have a material adverse effect on Alcoa.”

World Bank

The World Bank’s fraud and corruption unit, the Integrity Vice Presidency (INT), recently released its annual report (see here for the full report). This release states as follows.  The INT “concluded another strong year in its preventive and investigative efforts, with 83 debarments of wrongdoing firms, new agreements with national law enforcement authorities to expand the impact of INT’s investigations, numerous referrals to law enforcement agencies, and robust preventive efforts to help ensure Bank-financed projects deliver results.”

Survey Says

This past July, FTI Consulting conducted an on-line survey of 571 executives in UK businesses in board-level, senior management and middle management positions.  As noted in this release, among the survey findings were the following.

  • 40% of UK businesses surveyed think the current economic climate is encouraging risk taking around compliance with the UK Bribery Act
  • 27% do not believe the government will prosecute offenders
  • 25% of board-level employees surveyed might breach Bribery Act regulations to win business
  • 63% of respondents believe the UK Bribery Act eventually will have a positive effect on prospects for UK business

Spot-On

In the aftermath of the Wall Street Journal’s FCPA Inc.: Business of Bribery series (see here), the WSJ published the following letter to the editor from Steve Travis of Mercer Island, WA.

“The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act makes it illegal to offer money or a gift to foreign government officials or employees to gain a business advantage. Yet in the U.S., every business worthy of its name has lobbyists whose sole job in Washington, D.C., is to do exactly that: give money or gifts to our elected officials or employees of our government in a position to steer contracts their way. Does anyone really think that things like flying government officials around on company private jets or putting them up in private homes on vacations don’t come with a quid pro quo? Who is naive enough to think that contributions to election campaigns don’t come with strings attached?”

Spot-on – see here for a prior post (as well as numerous previous posts embedded therein).

*****

A good weekend to all.

 

Oxford Publishing Resolves U.K. SFO / World Bank Actions

Wednesday, July 4th, 2012

Last July, the U.K. publisher resolving an enforcement action concerning textbook and other sales in East Africa was Macmillian Publishing (see here for the prior post).  This July, it is Oxford Publishing Limited (OPL), a wholly owned subsidiary of Oxford University Press (OUP).

Yesterday the U.K. Serious Fraud Office announced (here) an enforcement action against OPL regarding “unlawful conduct related to subsidiaries incorporated in Tanzania and Kenya.”  The conduct at issue included “participating in public tenders for contracts to supply governments with text books and other educational materials for the school curricula.”

Pursuant to a civil recovery order under the Proceeds of Crime Act, OPL agreed to pay £1,895,435.

Under the heading “self referral” the SFO release states as follows.

“In 2011, OUP became aware of the possibility of irregular tendering practices involving its education business in East Africa.  OUP acted immediately to investigate the matter, instructing independent lawyers and forensic accountants to undertake a detailed investigation. As a result of the investigation, in November 2011 OUP voluntarily reported certain concerns in relation to contracts arising from a number of tenders which its Kenyan and Tanzanian subsidiaries … entered into between the years 2007 and 2010. [...] The investigation was thorough – involving numerous interviews and an extensive review of documents and electronic data – and completed to the satisfaction of the SFO. The substantial product of those investigations was presented to the SFO [...]  The product of that work led the SFO … to believe that [OPL subsidiaries] had offered and made payments, directly and through agents, intended to induce the recipients to award competitive tenders and/or publishing contracts for schoolbooks.”

The SFO release states that “a number of relevant features … led to the decision to pursue a civil recovery order in place of a criminal prosecution.”  Those factors include the following:  “OUP has conducted itself in a manner which fully meets the criteria set out in the SFO guidance on self reporting matters of overseas corruption” and “there is no evidence of Board level (or the equivalent) knowledge or connivance within OUP in relation to the business practices which led to the case being referred to the SFO.”  The SFO release also states as follows.  “The products supplied were of a good standard and provided at ‘open market’ values.  This means that the jurisdictions involved have not been victims as a result of overpaying for the goods or as a result being supplied goods which were unsuitable or not required.”

The SFO release further states as follows.

“Since the occurrence of the conduct that is the subject matter of the civil recovery order, OUP has introduced enhanced compliance procedures intended to significantly reduce the risk of recurrence of such conduct within OUP.  These procedures will be subject to review by a monitor who will report to the Director of the SFO within twelve months …”.

As noted in the SEC release, OUP also “unilaterally offered to contribute £2,000,000 to not-for-profit organisations for teacher training and other educational purposes in sub-Saharan Africa.  This was a reflection of the seriousness with which OUP views the course of events that were subject to the investigation and a wish to acknowledge that the conduct of [its subsidiaries] fell short of that expected within its wider organisation.”  As to this contribution, the SFO releases states that it “decided that the offer should not be included in the terms of the court order as the SFO considers it is not its function to become involved in voluntary payments of this kind.”

In the release, SFO Director David Green states as follows.  “This settlement demonstrates that there are, in appropriate cases, clear and sensible solutions available to those who self report issues of this kind to the authorities.  The use of Civil Recovery powers has been exercised in accordance with the Attorney General’s guidelines.  The company will be adopting new business practices to prevent a recurrence of these issues and these new procedures will be subject to an extensive and detailed review.”

Finally, the SFO release notes that it ”has previously been subject to criticism in relation to the transparency of the processes and proceedings in civil recovery matters.”  Thus the SFO release links to a number of documents including this Claim Form which sets forth specific claim details.

Based on the same core conduct, the World Bank also announced yesterday (here) that “OUP has agreed to make a payment of US$500,000 to the World Bank.”  In addition, as part of a negotiated resolution, the World Bank “announced the debarment of two wholly-owned subsidiaries of OUP, namely: Oxford University Press East Africa Limited (OUPEA) and Oxford University Press Tanzania Limited (OUPT) – for a period of three years following OUP’s acknowledgment of misconduct by its two subsidiaries in relation to two Bank-financed education projects in East Africa.”

In a statement (here) OUP Chief Executive Nigel Portwood stated as follows.

“OUP is committed to maintaining the highest ethical standards, and we have been deeply concerned to discover evidence of wrongdoing in two of our African subsidiaries. We do not tolerate such behaviour. As soon as these matters came to light we acted immediately to investigate thoroughly and report to the relevant authorities. We have strengthened our management in the region and are taking appropriate disciplinary action in respect of those involved in this conduct.”